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life — after life: does consciousness continue after our brain dies?
He watched them work frantically on his body and it was amazing considering that he was basically dead.
The man\'s heart stopped.
Under normal circumstances, there is no measurable, meaningful brain activity after the heart stops beating.
The brain is \"flat\" in two to 20 seconds.
But the man later told the researchers that he could see a strange woman waving from a corner of the ceiling.
\"I can\'t go up,\" he thought of himself, and the next second, \"I was on it, looking down at me.
He said he saw his blood pressure measured and a doctor put something in his throat.
He saw a nurse pump in his chest.
He accurately and vividly described the characters, voices and events of his \"resurrection. ”Dr.
Sam Parnia estimates that in the absence of detectable brain activity, the person experienced consciousness for 3 to 5 minutes, saying, \"when no human experience should be
The case is part of a widely reported study published in 2014 called AWARE.
Consciousness during the recovery trial, the world\'s largest study of what happened to human thoughts and consciousness in the early stages of death.
Parnia, now an intensive care and recovery specialist at the Langone Medical Center at New York University, believes that human consciousness may continue after our heart stops beating for a while.
He says evidence from consciousness and other studies increases the likelihood of the brain or consciousness --
The mind, the self, the things that make me Sam, make us who we are --
It may not come from the brain, it may be an independent, undiscovered scientific entity, which is essentially similar to the radio waves that can carry sounds and pictures.
Modern science lacks the tools to show it.
Pania believes that when we die, the entity we call consciousness or self is not necessarily \"wiped out immediately \".
Pania is not a religious person.
He insisted that he was not looking for evidence of the existence of an afterlife or a supernatural afterlife.
On the contrary, he and others are trying to find better ways to save the brain and avoid the terrible \"disorder of consciousness\" like Terry chawo \", the Florida woman entered a permanent plant State after a cardiac arrest due to lack of oxygen in her brain.
But Parnia also tested the proximity of theaccuracy\'s seemingly absurd claims.
Death experience using objective, scientific methods.
He is now working on aware ii and welcomes Canadian collaborators.
I was on it and looked down at me. His goal is to study 1,500 patients with cardiac arrest.
When the \"code\" is called, the participating researchers will receive an alert and be sent to a recovery room consisting of a portable brain oxygen monitoring device.
The plan is to measure oxygen levels inside the brain for the second time.
There will also be a portable EEG to measure whether the brain is working properly.
In addition, the patient will also be equipped with wireless headphones to hear random words and sounds through wireless headphones (
This needs to be kept secret before the study is over)
Will be transmitted via a tablet.
When people undergo CPR, the images also spread upwards.
Pania does not want anyone to open their eyes.
No one has ever done so.
\"Then we can look at the survivors and see if they can recall the stimuli, when they can receive the message, and what does that have to do with the quality of their brain recovery, pania announced at a recent meeting of the European Recovery Commission.
The ultimate goal is to try to better understand how to bring back a complete person with a full brain and mind, not a shell, by developing a gold standard level of brain oxygen, doctors should aim at this level during cardiac arrest and CPR in order to optimize survival without brain damage.
But the other side, paña says, is, \"We can also look at what happens to the human mind and consciousness after people go beyond the threshold of death.
In other words, how does the brain relate to the brain?
\"Can consciousness or self continue to work and exist when we die? ”—
For thousands of years, people have been trying to revive the dead in strange ways.
In the early years around 500 AD, people realized that the lifeless body was also cold, as Parnia described in his conversation, so they use warm ashes or burning animals to believe that heat will return to life.
Later, the idea that the whip ellation method, the deceased, can be breathed again by the whip ellation, appeared.
In 16th-century Europe, rescuers used a fireplace bellows to try to push air into the lungs of the body.
In the 1900 th and early 20 th centuries, through the second world war, we learned how to use the mouthto-
Parnia said in an interview that the mouth and chest press \"everything has changed \".
Today, advances in recovery medicine mean we can reverse the deaths of people who have no pulse for hours.
LONDON Liberty journalist Jane Sims recorded the story of AshLin Krell\'s death last year, but after her car overturned on Canada\'s busiest highway, she lives to trap her in a hole filled with ice.
Cold water for 27 minutes.
After the \"collapse\" of the hospital, more people succeeded in restoring their lives. Pania believed that more lives could be saved and more people were dragged back to the death threshold, if more hospitals adopt more advanced technology
Let the body shudder to protect the brain, or use an automatic mechanical device for chest pressing beyond the range of human abilities.
\"No matter why we die,\" Pania said.
Serious infection, cancer, \"bleeding by truck \"-
Most people end up dying from a cardiac arrest.
The blood pressure drops, the heart cannot pump enough blood to supply the body, the heart finally stops, the breathing stops, the electrical activity in the brain stops, and the brain becomes flat.
Glow on the pupil, which means the brain stem has stopped functioning if the pupil is fixed and expanded.
23 years ago, Patna took part in a cardiac arrest while in medical school.
He usually does not know these people.
They\'re not his patients.
They were basically dead bodies when he arrived.
But at the end of the training, he met a patient.
\"A lovely and lovely man,\" and after 30 minutes of interviewing him in Pania, his heart beat unexpectedly and stopped.
\"It\'s very different, and now I have a personal connection with this person, who is essentially a body that has no life, no emotion,\" Parnia said . \".
He remembered seeing him enter the apartment.
In line, people are frantically trying to revive the man in an hour.
He remembers saying to himself, \"What happened to this person\'s mind and consciousness, what happened to this lovely person I was talking to half an hour ago?
Is he conscious?
Can he see us, can he?
If he really loses consciousness, when does he lose it?
Everything was vague for Pania.
When he stood and looked, he thought, \"What has been done in this respect in science? —
Parnia wrote in the 2017 QJM: International Journal of Medicine: \"A priori mystery or spiritual experience close to death has been described for thousands of years . \".
Plato\'s Republic tells the story of the Greek warrior Er, who died in battle but was brought back to tell the story of the afterlife.
The 15 th century painting by Dutch painter Bosch onymus Bosch, the rise of Heaven, depicts a tunnel of light, and the soul rises into heaven.
But 40 years ago, after the birth of modern intensive care medicine
The birth of the death experience.
Philosopher and psychiatrist Raymond Moody, whose 1975 book \"Life After Death\" details the experience of more than 100 people who have died --
Someone who has experienced \"clinical\" death but is resurrectedcoined it.
The book sold more than 13 million copies.
The story of the \"experiencer\" has striking similarities: feeling calm, happy, and without pain;
A warm, welcoming light that sometimes draws people through tunnels;
Greeted by The Phantom of the late relative or the \"presence of light\", this is a panoramic review of the critical moments of life.
The most widely used tool to quantify the near
The death experience is called Greyson NDE Scale.
The scale, published in 1983 by American psychiatrist Bruce Gleeson, was based on his interview with 74 people and scored 16 questions such as \"Did you see it? Bright lights?
\"Do you seem to have entered another mysterious world?
\"A score of 7 or higher is eligible for the experience of NDE.
The study found that 6-23 of the heart
The arrest report says clear memories are close
Pania does not like the word.
He prefers the \"actual death experience,\" and for standardized scientific research, NDE says it should be limited to those experiences that correspond to the actual physiological state close to death.
Nothing is closer to understanding the actual experience of death than a heartbeat stops. —
Parnia was taught in medical school and consciousness is undeniable as a by-product
The product of the brain, \"this may be some kind of associate phenomenon caused by synaptic activity,\" means communication between neurons.
Many studies have shown a correlation between brain activity and changes in the brain.
Slide someone into a functional MRI and let him or her think about something happy or sad.
Synaptic changes in oxygen or glucose levels in specific parts of the brain light up.
\"The problem with all these studies is that they are not the reason --
\"None of them show you how brain cells produce thoughts, which is the fundamental problem of consciousness,\" Parnia said . \".
\"If you look at brain cells under a microscope, I say to you, this brain cell is thinking now, and you say it\'s crazy, it\'s a brain cell.
Brain cells produce proteins, changes in sodium, and electricity in sodium.
\"This is not an idea,\" Parnia said . \".
\"If I say, well, somehow, if I connect hundreds, thousands, or millions of these cells together, that leads to this magical phenomenon of thought.
There is no mechanism to explain why this is happening.
Why are my brain cells, millions of cells connected, suddenly feeling guilty, or have a feeling of guilt, like if I throw a brick in my neighbor\'s window, or be rude to someone or do something immoral?
He said: \"When the heart stops beating, the brain shuts down from a functional point of view.
\"The paradox, however, is that what we are starting to see is that millions of people are now recovering, and many of them report that these are very clear.
Structured thinking process
\"They are able to form memories and describe conversations and what people are wearing.
\"They have experienced death, except that their brains have been shut down.
This is a complete paradox that should not happen.
If your mind is just a by-product
The product of the brain, if your brain has been shut down, should be unconscious.
The paradox, however, is that what we are starting to see is that millions of people are now recovering, and many of them report that these are very clear.
From Japan, India, the Middle East and the Americas, this phenomenon is described worldwide.
They are very consistent in different cultures and religions and are reported by preschool children.
Parnia once interviewed three people. year-
The old boy whose heart stopped beating after the seizure survived.
\"I saw a bright light when I was dead,\" the boy told Pania in a game.
\"Grandma came to pick me up and said I would be fine.
Other children describe \"the existence of light\" not God, nor Jesus, but Santa Claus.
Toddlers are not exposed to religious teachings, the doctor said.
Elaine desdale is a clinical professor at the Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, UK.
But they reported
Similar death experiences with older children and adults.
The de-destroyer of Pania accused him of \"whistling to theists.
They said: \"The concept of separation between the soul or mind and the body is the flight of science.
Adrian Owen, a famous neurologist at Western universities, is working on finding signs of consciousness in \"plant-man\" patients, saying that the brain is the organ that produces consciousness and stops completely.
\"You can\'t be conscious if you take that organ, or kill that organ, or that organ dies.
Although there is no clear center of consciousness in the brain --
There\'s nothing you can point out and say, \'Where is all this happening \'--
Owen is part of an international team that recently discovered two particularly different patterns of complex brain activity that can distinguish between conscious and unconscious brains.
He did not believe the patient who reported it.
Death goes through a state where there is no detectable brain response.
If this is true, they will be classified as brain dead, \"I know there are no cases in the literature where a brain dead patient comes back.
Owen did not say they were dead.
But the brain has an amazing vascular system.
Unless a person dies from a huge trauma, like a windshield through a car, it immediately destroys all the functions of the brain, Owen said, after the heart stops, some parts of the brain continue to get oxygen for some time.
Before the brain is turned off, or after the heart and brain function begin to recover online, memory or feeling of consciousness that does not appear to be reflected may also occur.
NDE denier and Australian anesthetist G. M.
Woerlee believes that in the course of CPR, pressing itself can push the blood to the body and the brain in sufficient quantities to maintain some form of consciousness, and that these people are \"absolutely not \'flat\'
\"In fact, the doctor at McGill University reported a 38-year-
The old man who recovered consciousness several times during CPR.
The man was dejected six times.
Throughout the ordeal, he did \"purposeful actions to push the CPR provider away\" and made an oral expression in every vibration of the defibrillator, Dr.
Roger Gray reports in the Canadian family doctor magazine.
When signs of consciousness were identified, CPR stopped immediately and his pulse was also checked.
No obvious pulse.
Restrictions were put in place, CPR resumed, and his heart resumed beating 17 minutes after his initial heartbeat stopped.
In an interview three months later, he recalled discomfort in his chest and neck, but no pain.
Although he has fully recovered, the situation with his Reviver is frustrating.
No one \"has experienced a patient recovering consciousness through CPR, and no one is aware that this is possible.
\"Jimo bojkin is an associate professor at the University of Michigan School of Medicine.
In a mouse experiment, Borjigin and her colleagues found that within the first 30 seconds after the heart stopped, rodents experienced a huge surge in the secretion of brain chemicals.
Their dead brain seems to be very excited.
\"Especially serum amine is very high,\" she said . \"
\"We know that serum amine is related to hallucination and other mental functions.
\"Yes, the overall level of electrical activity in the brain is low,\" said bojkin.
\"But at least part of the part responsible for conscious information processing actually adds a lot to the dying brain-\" she said --\"
At least 30 seconds.
What\'s even more striking is that Western University researchers reported two years ago the case of a patient who was canceled life support, who continued to show brain wave activity within 10 minutes of his last heartbeat.
The author does not know how to explain the article
The death delta wave broke out.
This is also a sample size.
Pania, as far as he is concerned, suspects that the brain activity recorded in otherwise dead mice is enough to produce that clear and vivid memory of the human report that they claim to have experienced near-
He also disagrees with the illusion theory.
When people lack oxygen in their brains --
What Parnia sees every day in the intensive care unit
They become completely delusional and lost.
With the illusion, thinking becomes fragmented and chaotic.
\"They are not in good health --
\"The process of structured thinking,\" he said.
If the oxygen gets too low, they will be in a coma. NDE-
In contrast, ers reported vivid experiences.
In addition, \"People are coming back to describe the real events that have occurred and doctors and nurses have verified and verified them.
So, by definition, they can\'t be illusions, because they\'re describing real events, he thinks.
This is not \"locked --
In the \"syndrome\", people are conscious, can think and reason, but can\'t speak or move.
Or someone who is in a \"plant\" state because of severe brain damage.
People reported nearby
The death experience describes the consciousness that they are separated from the body.
\"They\'re looking and they can see this happening to them, but they have no pain and they want to know why everyone is worried about them,\" Parnia said.
\"I don\'t understand why they think I\'m dead because I don\'t feel like I\'m dead, even though I don\'t know what I\'m doing in the corner of the room.
\"The initial AWARE trial involved the arrest of 2,060 heart patients in 15 hospitals in the United States. S. , the U. K. and Austria.
330 of them survived.
The experience and proximity of nine people who can be interviewed in detail
The death of Patna and his colleagues
The author reports in the journal recovery.
The two reportedof-Physical experience;
Including the person who reported \"seeing\" and \"hearing\" things, he hovered near the ceiling on his lifeless body.
But there is a problem: test the accuracy of out-of-
Researchers piled up shelves in rooms where people were most likely to have a heart beat, such as coronary care rooms, ICU and emergency wards.
On each stack of shelves, what can only be seen from the ceiling down is the hidden target-a picture of a baby, a pink dog, and a newspaper headline about Princess Diana\'s death.
Researchers visually pursue \"real\" OBEs, in which the experiencer reports verifiable information that is not available by any means of the Earth.
Skeptics believe that when the sensory channel of the brain is closed, it is entirely possible for people to see or hear something.
But what if they can get verifiable evidence of \"remote viewing?
However, most cardiac arrest occurs where there is no shelf.
None of the nine people reporting NDEs
Neither of them reported-of-
The report sees the hidden image.
Even a brief burst of electrical activity deep in the brain\'s brain leaves, or even a few seconds, can evoke a supernatural and mysterious experience.
On last August, a research team at Imperial College London reported that psychedelic drug DMT-
Death experience in the brain
Thirteen volunteers who received intravenous DMT completed the Greyson scale-
Standardized questionnaire trying to quantify
They all scored above the NDE threshold. Dr. Robin Carhart-
Harris, director of the study, pointed out in the paper: \"These findings are important because they remind us that NDEs occur because of significant changes in the way the brain works, not because of things outside the brain.
\"Parnia believes that it is entirely possible that people who report conscious experiences during cardiac arrest will also have higher blood and oxygen flowing to their brains.
But that doesn\'t mean the experiences are illusory or untrue, he says.
The study found that NDE recalled areriher in detail-
They look more real.
Than the memory of real life events.
For delidedale at the University of BC, this shows that \"as the brain shuts down, our consciousness actually increases.
But when did the brain die?
\"The brain is no longer\" alive \"does cut the point, a threshold that is still unknown, perhaps less explicit than historical assumptions,\" researchers at Laurenson University wrote on PLOS One in 2016.
Death is a process, not an absolute black, Pania says. and-white moment.
\"In fact, only after a person dies does the cell begin to go through its own death process, which can take hours.
Even if the lines of the brain are flat
There are no signs of brain waves on the standard EEG
Pania says brain cells will not die immediately.
They can take hours to be permanently damaged.
On 2012, researchers at the Paris Buster Institute found that stem cells could survive at least 17 days in the body after death (
The body is stored in the morgue at 4 degrees Celsius to prevent the body from rotting. )
A Baltimore team has been able to live stem cells from the scalp and brain lining of people who have died for up to 21 hours.
The Lawson team can survive.
Like, later on, the physiological response
When humans expose the dead brain tissue to chemical and electrical probes, dissect it.
\"When the brain dies and the tissue loses structural integrity, the individual is considered no longer to represent the remainder of the organ,\" the researchers wrote in PLoS One . \".
\"In general, these results show that after
The human brain may retain potential abilities to deal with potential life.
Like and virtual properties.
\"This is definitely the reason why people are putting $10,000 into freezing or\" glass \"their brains.
A startup in Silicon Valley claims that they are developing a technology that will not only preserve the physical function of the brain, but also the memory in the brain, the goal is to upload these frozen memories to the server one day, so that people can live a new life like computer simulations, maybe robots.
But without the freezing of glass and of course without any life support, the brain will eventually deteriorate.
Death is reversible after the heartbeat stops. up to a point.
There is no verifiable evidence yet that something like consciousness will leave the dead body.
Gregory M. Said: \"For the materialism, each of us is our brain and we will die with it . \"
Nixon wrote in The Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research.
The discoverer of DNA says consciousness is a sub-phenomenon.
The product of synaptic activity in the brain.
Nevertheless, both camps have Nobel Prize winners: Sir John Eccles, who won the prize for his work on synapses in 1963, dispelled the idea --
The theory of the brain believes that this scientific reduction theory \"incredibly belittles the mystery of human beings \".
Today, the same differences remain in this area.
Pania says he remains open.
He said in a recent headline, \"when you die, you know you\'re dead because your brain is still working for a while.
In a recent interview with Newsweek, Pania pointed out that the whole idea is very disturbing, an idea that \"scares people \".
For some, this also raises a creepy inference: can we watch our organs get Retrieved as they float around the ceiling and leave the entity?
If nothing else, Pania says the person who came back from clinical death
Admit they\'re technically dead.
They report that they see brilliant lights or enter the supernatural realm, often completely changed by the experience.
They become more selfless, less self
To help him as the center.
Less fear of death.
\"They look at the world in a different way,\" Parnia said . \". Still, near-
The experience of death is not all the light of the universe, the existence of love.
As Bruce Grayson and Nancy Evans Bush wrote in the 1992 issue of psychiatry, there are people who are \"frankly infernal.
Some describe them as being sucked into the hole or seeing weird people cry and groan.
\"Some people are trying to commit suicide and their experiences are very, very unpleasant and problematic for them,\" Parnia said . \".
When he first started thinking, he was young and naive.
Physical problems 20 years ago
\"I think we may be able to solve this problem in more than a year --and-a-
Half the research, \"he said.
\"We are all conscious, thoughtful people.
Everything we do starts with consciousness.
However, we don\'t know where it comes from at all.