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how is rapid warming in the arctic affecting animals adapted to cold? scientists track muskoxen to find out

by:NULITE     2019-09-15
Our planet has an unimaginable diversity, from a sea view of 8,000 metres below the surface of the ocean to a landscape of more than 8,000 metres.
Its physical beauty comes from an incredible variety of creatures.
Some mammals spawn;
Some lizards have no legs.
Bats catch fish.
Birds catch bats.
Alaska\'s wooden frog can survive winter even when he is two years old.
The third part of their body tissue turns ice.
But as the climate changes the habitat where animals have adapted for thousands of years, snow now disappears faster in some places and deepens in others.
The retreating sea ice has reduced the length of the hunting season for polar bears on land.
Due to the rupture of the permanent frozen layer at the bottom of the Siberian lake, the water flows into the ground; fish die.
My research focuses on protecting large species that are adapted to live in cold areas, including the North Rocky Mountains, Central Asia, and the permanent frozen layers in Asia and Alaska.
This winter, I will return to the Arctic for 11 consecutive years.
I would like to know how the change in temperature affects musk cattle
Animals that used to roam with extinct mammo elephants.
In order to solve this problem, I need to identify population trends and possible stress and gain insight into the physiology, reproduction, predators and food sources of these animals.
The umbrella is a story about ice, snow and temperature.
Earlier this year, a fragile Arctic scientist at NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration released a thought-provoking finding: based on independent research by two agencies, 2016 is the third year in a row to create a new record for the global average surface temperature.
In the polar region, especially in the Arctic, the pattern of warming is the most extreme.
One of the most significant trends we have observed in the Arctic is that when the temperature never drops below freezing point, there is more and more weather in winter.
The rain fell and the snow on the ground melted.
This may be more serious than it sounds.
Winter rain of 2002on-
A snow storm on Bank of Canada wrapped the ground in ice, leaving Musk cattle unable to get food.
About 20,000 animals died. Cold-
The adapted species are feeling hot.
Moose experience more ticks from the south and more pathogens from reindeer.
With the growth of vegetation in the north, some species have lost their habitat.
Red Fox replaces Arctic fox.
We know of the dramatic changes in the polar environment, as teams of scientists from dozens of countries have conducted creative cross-domain collaborative research. But at fine-
On scale, we know little about how these changes affect individuals, or how flexible many species must adapt.
The study of Iceland in the United States related to Arctic tourism is of great significance --
Round, especially complicated winter.
In Alaska, I work with two assistants and we play lightly.
Usually only Fred Goodhope, Jr. (
Alaska\'s ancestors survived here for 12,000 years. , a bio-
I\'m the technician.
Fred knew the land, like the back of his hand, whether he fixed the accelerator of the snow machine at minus 10 degrees with a dental floss or drove the ground snowstorm without GPS.
In 50 kilometers apart, Musk cattle appeared in a closely arranged herd.
We navigate and collect data on ice fields and tundra between the two groups.
Over the years, my colleagues and I have used helicopters to hunt down, calm down and radio --Lead muskoxen.
This is a very useful way to get biological insights, but I gave it up five years ago because about 5% of the animals we broadcast --
Collared failed to reconnect with their cattle when the drugs ran out.
Instead, they hide in the snow alone.
Security breach for up to two months.
I want a more compassionate way to collect data, so I continue to collect and analyze frozen feces without radiocollaring.
It contains Bingzhen hormones, which we can evaluate to infer stress levels (gluco-Cortical steroids
And pregnancy rate (progestagens).
We know from these data that isolated women experience three to six times more stress levels than their peers.
The change in gentle tactics is worth it.
We also used a method called photographic measurement, or measured from a photo.
When Musk cattle perceive the threat, they gather together in a defensive manner, not to run away.
It\'s good to work with mass-sized animals: they stand out in the vast Arctic.
When they Group and shoot at known distances and angles in this way, we can approach them and then use these photos to develop algorithms and estimate their dimensions.
By comparing our estimates with the growth and size data of captive animals, we can explore factors such as winter and summer temperatures, availability and health of vegetation, and rainfallon-
Snow storms affect the growth and size of wild musk cattle.
Undernourished or stressed adolescents from many species tend to grow slowly, reaching puberty later in life, with reduced survival rates.
I want to know about these parameters in Musk cattle.
For example, when it rainson-
When it snows, pregnant women cannot eat because their food is locked under an indestructible ice.
My colleagues and I anticipate that their growing fetus will run out of resources available in the womb and that these stores will not be replenished because the mother will not be able to get food.
We are now developing our first estimate of how warming might affect this-Study species.
Research on Asian ice in Greenland and Canada\'s Arctic region, reports on polar bears eating Masco cattle are limited, but we do not know whether they eat dead animals or kill live animals.
We know that as the Arctic warms up, polar bears are feeding more often on land, melting the sea ice they usually hunt, rest and breed.
In order to determine whether polar bears pose a threat to Masco cattle, we need to know whether they are food for animals that die from diseases and other causes, or are attacking live Masco cattle.
I used a common experimental technique: simulation, which requires a fake polar bear and a fake reindeer as a control.
I took these two sets of clothing made of cloth and foam plastic to the ground and approached the Musk cattle to see how they would react.
The study follows in the footsteps of Nobel Prize winners Niko Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenzo, who are interested in animal behavior and manipulate the perception world of seagulls and geese.
Such on-site deployments are now more common.
Recently, they were used in the gas field in Wyoming to evaluate the sage-
Songchickens react to increased noise from hydraulic fracturing.
I also used acoustic and olfactory models in Alaska and Yellowstone to study how naive prey like moose react to re-introduced wolves and re-breeding grizzly bears.
On Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean, my fears intensified as I rode my limbs close to Musk\'s herd.
There\'s always the possibility of getting bitten, but to protect me I can\'t bring a gun and the pepper spray is too cold when they charge.
But I could jump from the ground to my feet, which confused them and stopped any charges.
On the vast edge of the earth, man has done a great job of erasing or threatening the glory of his previous life.
Field research gives me the opportunity to see the world through the eyes of animals and work with many other scientists to develop better plans for all living beings that rely on our planet\'s life support system. Cold-
Adapted species have figured out how to survive in thousands of generations.
To curb climate challenges, we humans need to change our behavior in a shorter period of time.
Joel Bergeris Barbara Cox Anthony, head of wildlife conservation at Colorado State University.
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