Leading the fashion and low carbon life is the goal of new energy

high-performance retail store with integrated hvac systems.

by:NULITE     2019-09-15
Abstract a new one.
The electric retail store in Montreal, Canada uses a variety of design functions to maximize the interaction between various building components. The two-story, high-
Performance, \"green\" commercial building is the result of the integrated energy design process and function
Source heat pump with radiant floor for space heating and cooling, improved building housing, optimized natural lighting on the second floor, exhaust energy recovery and mixed ventilation.
Many achievements in geothermal system operation parameters and construction
Specific energy performance is introduced.
The final results show that the annual energy consumption is 133. 1 kWh/[m. sup. 2](12. 4 kWh/[ft. sup. 2])
And the reference building will be at 466 KW /[m. sup. 2](43. 3kWh/[ft. sup. 2])
Reduced by 71. 4%.
Save energy costs 24 CD per [m. sup. 2](CD$ 2. 22 per [ft. sup. 2]).
Introduce more than 32 commercial construction consumption in Quebec.
7 GWh electricity per year, representing 18. 5% (in2001)
Total annual consumption of the province (MRNFP 2003).
Reducing energy consumption and minimizing the impact of HVAC systems on the environment is an important goal for architectural designers such as architects and engineers, especially in cold weather.
May involve ground-
Source heat pump (GSHPs)
, Natural ventilation, natural lighting, photovoltaic (PV)
System, passive solar heating and optimized building housing.
There have been some such solutions recently. 2003)
In a high
High-Performance stores in Montreal, Canada.
The total opening hours of this store areSpace of 180 [m. sup. 2](45,000 [ft. sup. 2])
Including 800 [1 [m. sup. 2](8,500 [ft. sup. 2])
Storage area and some administrative offices.
The total cost of the project is 6 CD.
1 M, of which the proportion of air conditioning systems is about 33% (CD$ 482/[m. sup. 2][CD$45/[ft. sup. 2]]).
This commercial building is the first in Quebec to be associated with Canada C-
High standards of 2000
Performance Building, awarded ASHRAE 2005 Engineering Excellence Award, becoming the best project in all categories (ASHRAE 2005).
It also won the 2004 Energia Jury Award (Charneux 2004a).
Main innovative features of building HVACsystems (Figure 1)
Yes: geothermal fluid-to-
Liquid heat pump with radiation plate for space heating and cooling, mixed ventilation system, PV plate coupled with the EDM pump, solarpanel for domestic hot water (DHW)
Preheating, rainwater recovery, passive geothermal for toilet flushing (free)
Cool with the radiator, heat recovery of the exhaust rotating wheel.
Building automation system (BAS)
Connect to the Weather Channel network over the Internet, filter the weather forecast and use them to adjust the main operation setting points. The PV panels (
2x20 w module)
Solar DHW preheating system (4 x 3 [m. sup. 2]flat panels)
Since they are marginal energy producers, they are excluded from this study, which focuses primarily on the energy demand and consumption levels of the grid.
The store opened to the public on May 2003 and is located in a cold climate area with a heating design value of-99%21. 7[degrees]C(-7[degrees]F)
Cooling design value of 1% 28. 3[degrees]C(83[degrees]F)
Dry ball and 21. 1[degrees]C (70[degrees]F)wet bulb(ASHRAE 2001a).
These outdoor conditions correspond to 6A (ASHRAE 2004).
Walls and roofs of buildings
The values are 6 respectively. 2 [m. sup. 2]x K/W (35 [ft. sup. 2]x [degrees]F x h/Btu)and 7 [m. sup. 2]x K/W (40 [ft. sup. 2]x [degrees]F x h/Btu)
It is more than twice the requirements of national and provincial norms.
The windows are high-
Performance, doubleglazed low-
E. Optimize the glass of the shadow coefficient according to the exposure (
The north side is clearer than the south side). They have a U-factor of 1. 87 W/[m. sup. 2]x K (0. 33 Btu/h x[ft. sup. 2]x [degrees]F).
Overall U Building
The factor is about 0. 43 W/[m. sup. 2]x K (0. 076 Btu/h x [ft. sup. 2]x [degrees]F). [
Figure 1 slightly]
The design goal of the window system is to provide about 325 Lux (30 fc)
On cloudy days, it shines through sunlight to the second floor, while minimizing glare on sunny days.
The design solution includes a set of continuous rows of glazed surfaces of different sizes and heights, located on the north and south sides of the building, as well as inside the roof monitor.
When artificial lighting is not needed, some artificial lighting is turned off by daylight sensors.
It is estimated that the building will have nearly half the sunshine time each year.
In addition, the power density of artificial lighting is 1. 3W/[ft. sup. 2](14 W/[m. sup. 2])
48% and 13, respectively.
3% lower than Canada\'s national energy model for constructionMNECB)
1997 and Appendix g of ASHRAE Standard 90. 1-2001 (
Genest and Charneux 2005).
Main mixed ventilation system of 23,600 liters/second (50,000 cfm)
1. Mixed ventilation system. 2 by 1. 2 m (3. 65 by 3. 65 ft)
Underground tunnels extending along the perimeter of the building and 4 5,900 liters/second (12,500 cfm)
Low horsepower propeller fan.
In \"natural\" ventilation mode, air flows through a set of filters, underground tunnels and vertical ventilation Wells before being delivered to the retail area and storage space.
It leaves the building by a group of 16 electric dampers located in the roof monitor.
This system works when outdoor drying
The bulb temperature is between 12. 8[degrees]C (55[degrees]F)and 26. 7[degrees]C (80[degrees]F)
But only when outdoors
The temperature is below 18. 3[degrees]C (65[degrees]F)
To prevent condensation on a cool concrete floor.
It can be combined with slab radiation cooling, using water supplied directly from the geothermal exchanger when needed.
Freecooling construction of mixed ventilation system supplies about 1,500 hours, 3,200
Business hours per year.
The hybrid ventilation system supplies 5 at maximum airflow capacity. 6 L/s x [m. sup. 2](1. 11 cfm/[ft. sup. 2])
, About four times the minimum outdoor air requirement specified by ASHRAE Standard 622001 (ASHRAE 2001b).
When the outdoor temperature exceeds this range, BAS activates the auxiliary special outdoor air system (DOAS)
Ventilation system.
Roof for secondary ventilation-
Install the top of DOAS and heat it again (wintertime)or dehumidify (summertime)
When the outdoor temperature is outside the operating range of the natural ventilation system, the outdoor air required for the operation of the building.
DOAS has been used for sanitary exhaust.
It includes variables-
Control the speed drive with C [O. sub. 2]
Sensors and total heat recovery wheels in the exhaust air flow (
75% of efficiency).
In order to avoid the high energy consumption of traditional HVAC fans, the heating and cooling system of the building space is selected as the most radiant concrete floor embedded in the cross shape
Link polyethylene (PEX)tubes.
These slabs are used to provide heating and reasonable cooling for the building.
It is designed to have a large number of exposed surfaces, and the finish is minimal to reduce the surface resistance of the slab and minimize the equivalent fluid temperature during heating and cooling.
Plenty of water
The supplied unit heaters are used to provide heating for relics and stairs.
The radiation board concept for space heating and cooling allows the usual range of indoor temperatures to be reduced from 18 degrees for comfort. 3[degrees]C (65[degrees]F)
Up to 26 years old in winter. 7[degrees]C (80[degrees]F)
In the summer, the heat loss and gain are further reduced through the capacity required by the building envelope and the heat pump system.
Eight of the same water. to-
Water heat pump (
The total actual cooling capacity is 80 tons)
Filled with the HFCs-
407C connect 12 175 m (575 ft)
Vertical drilling (26 m/ton [79. 2 ft/ton]).
Because the heat pump also provides a roof-
Installed DOAS, propylene alcohol/water mixture (
50% volume and freezing point35[degrees]C[-31[degrees]F])
Used as a heat transfer fluid in geological exchange and building cycles to prevent freezing.
Although propylene alcohol is more than other liquids and harder to handle in cold weather, its non-toxic, non-burning, non-corrosive properties are favored by this fully automatic operator
Free installation.
To prevent U-
Pipe extrusion issues related
Chilled water supply of geothermal wells and improvement of overall thermal properties of geothermal wells, bentonite-
Base slurry is used as backfill material.
Heat pumps are divided into two 4-
Unit logic operation group: one group is assigned to the radiator and the other to the DOAS (Figure 1).
The originality of this concept is also reflected in the presence of four major areas of the flow of heat transfer fluid: peripheral areas (P)
, Includes unit heaters and provides heating/cooling for cash registers, coffee shops, stairs and radiant floors in the high-glass sales area;
Internal area (I)
Includes most of the radio floors located in the sales area, warehouse and office;
Exchange area (G)
Including two. vertical-bores groups;
And the District of aDOAS (F).
Zone P and zone I are connected in series to increase the temperature difference of the water ring.
Finally, in order to use geothermal natural cooling as much as possible, a special circulating pump (P1-G andP2-G)
Use a heat pump for delayed operation in the necessary cooling mode.
Due to the slow response time of the concrete floor to the heating and cooling requirements, BAS continuously runs the P, I and gcontinuuusly zones during the heating season and most of the cooling season.
Forecast logic based on weather forecast automatically retrieved from the Internet based on actual outdoor temperature or forecast temperature to correct plate area temperature to accelerate plate energy loading before very cold or hot weather.
When the outdoor temperature is less than 12, in the heating mode [degrees]C (53. 6[degrees]F)
Zones I, P and G are running. Waterpumps P1-I, P2-I, and P1-
P is in operation, while the valves A, B and Cmodulate are after 36 [ramps] in order to keep the return water temperature in each area at their respective set pointsdegrees]C to20[degrees]C (96. 8[degrees]F to 68[degrees]F)
According to the outdoor temperature-25[degrees]Cto 15[degrees]C (-13[degrees]F to 59[degrees]F). Starting inmid-
From afternoon to midnight, the weather forecast software covers the outdoor temperature reading with the low temperature forecast of the next night, thus adjusting the water supply setting point accordingly.
Natural ventilation mode will only operate when the outdoor dew point is less than 16. 7[degrees]C (62[degrees]F)
The external temperature is between 12 [degrees]C and 26. 7[degrees]C (53. 6[degrees]F and80[degrees]F).
Stop all heat pumps and circulating pumps in this mode.
The hybrid ventilation system provides cooling.
In geothermal free cooling mode, when the heat pump and area F (the DOAS)are stopped.
This mode can supplement the natural ventilation mode if the outdoor temperature is higher than 24 [degrees]C (75. 2[degrees]F).
From October, from
In the afternoon to midnight, if the weather forecast predicts that the heat will exceed 20 [in the next day], it will cover the slatedegrees]C (68[degrees]F). Water pumps P1-I, P2-I, P1-P, and P1-
G continuous operation with valves A, B and C adjusted to keep the return temperature in each area at 18 [degrees]C (64. 4[degrees]F).
When the return temperature of the heat transfer fluid is higher than 15 [degrees]C (59[degrees]F), theP2-
The G pump runs until the return temperature is less than 12 [degrees]C(53. 6[degrees]F).
The last cooling step is the mechanical cooling mode.
When the outdoor temperature and dew point are higher than the specified temperature, it replaces the natural ventilation mode. Water pumps P1-I, P2-I, andP1-
P is in operation and valves A, B and C are adjusted to maintain the water return temperature in each area of 13 [degrees]C (55. 4[degrees]F).
Low limit prevents the return water temperature from being lower than the indoor dew point.
Ventilation air is provided by a mixed ventilation system and/or DOAS (zone F).
According to the building model, both systems operate according to the store\'s usage schedule.
When DOAS operates in a heating or mechanical cooling mode, the outdoor air is treated directly into a mixed ventilation system, which acts as a building air distribution system.
The DOAS fan starts at the lowest speed and is adjusted to maintain the indoor C [O. sub. 2]
Below the 900 ppm level of sanitary exhaust demand.
Pump P1-in heating mode-
F and valve D operate to keep the supply air temperature between 22 [degrees]Cand 13[degrees]C (71. 6[degrees]F and 55. 4[degrees]F)
According to indoor air temperature (from 20[degrees]C to 26[degrees]C[68[degrees]F to 78. 8[degrees]F]).
In cooling mode, the setting point of supply air is fixed at 12 [degrees]C (53. 6[degrees]F)
Wet removal is provided.
In the natural ventilation mode, the hybrid system runs the independent cooling mode in the case that DOAS only runs the exhaust fan (At the lowest speed)
Sanitary exhaust is provided.
In this mode, four propeller fans and roof monitor dampers operate in turn to supply enough external air to keep the indoor temperature at around 22 [degrees]C(71. 6[degrees]F).
As a result, during a very hot period in typical summer, geothermal fluid enters the temperature of the first part of the underground heat exchanger (June 2004)
Never more than 30 [degrees]C (86[degrees]F)(Figure 2)
And the temperature difference through the ground-
The source heat exchanger is between 3. 5[degrees]C and 6. 5[degrees]C (6. 3[degrees]Fand 11. 7[degrees]F).
Free cooling of the radiation plate is usually ensured by a heat transfer fluid with a temperature change from 10 [degrees]C(50[degrees]F)to about 15[degrees]C (59[degrees]F)
Entrance to slabzones P and I (Figure 3).
The control of the fluid supply temperature effectively prevents water condensation on the surface of the radiation plate.
In typical winter months (January 2005)
, The heat transfer fluid returned from the first part of the underground heat exchanger is-2[degrees]C and -4[degrees]C(28. 4[degrees]F and 24. 8[degrees]F)
, Which tends to indicate that this part of the underground heat exchanger is designed to be slightly inadequate.
The average temperature difference through the vertical ground heat exchanger is about 4 [degrees]C (7. 2[degrees]F)(Figure 4).
During the same period (January 2005)
, Heat pump to provide heat transfer fluid to the flat area at average temperature, from 30 [degrees]C to 40[degrees]C (86[degrees]F to104[degrees]F)
According to the demand for heating (Figure 5).
The average temperature difference through the three regions is usually maintained at about 10 [degrees]C (18[degrees]F). [
Figure 2:[
Figure 3 slightly][
Figure 4 slightly][
Figure 5 Slightly][
Figure 6 slightly]
Overview of monthly energy consumption of energy consumption GSHP system (
Heat pump and all circulators)
It is shown that the GSHP system is responsible for between 35% in winter (March)and 44% (January)
Part of the total number of stores
In the summer, it is assumed to be between 28% (August)and 31% (July)
Energy consumption of stores (Figure 6).
The annual consumption ratio of the whole store is 133. 1kWh/[m. sup. 2](12. 4 kWh/[ft. sup. 2])
Among them, the geothermal system bears 40 KW hours per year /[m. sup. 2](3. 7 kWh/[ft. sup. 2])per year, or30. 09%.
The most important energy consumption of the building is the lighting system, which is about 71 kw h /[m. sup. 2](6. 6 kWh/[ft. sup. 2])peryear, or 53.
Store total energy consumption of 31%.
Compared with the main heating system (geothermal)
For lighting, electric heating of the peripheral substrate (with about 2. 77%)
And the DOAS system (4. 29%)
Almost marginal energy consumers (Figure 7).
And all-
Electric Reference building designed according to MNECB (
The simulated energy consumption is 466kWh/[m. sup. 2]per year)
These data show a decrease of 71.
Store annual energy consumption of 4% (Table 1).
This means that power consumption will be reduced by 1,391 megawatts per year.
For this project, the MNECB reference Building HVAC system includes an electrical boiler with air
Provides a cooling cooler for distributed fan coils with a lighting density of about 26. 9 W/[m. sup. 2](2. 5W/[ft. sup. 2])
, And a total construction U-factor of 0. 60 W/[m. sup. 2]x K(0. 106 Btu/h x [ft. sup. 2]x [degrees]F).
This result was obtained after a long debugging process.
Adjust all components of the system and their control sequence.
With three other records high
Performance Building (
Middle School, retail stores and office buildings)
The specific energy use of the new retail store in the second year of operation is on the same order of magnitude (
Tables 1 and 8).
Energy saving is about twice as much as the appropriate reference building.
Additional costs for HVAC systems are estimated at 475,000 CD.
The energy cost of the store is reduced by 100,000 yuan per year (or CD$ 24 per [m. sup. 2]).
Therefore, the simple payment period is estimated to be about 4. 75 years.
Because of the indirect emission coefficient of electrical energy distributed in Quebec (
Water and electricity almost 100%)is 0. 00122 kg ofC[O. sub. 2]
Actual greenhouse gas emissions per kWh decreased by 1.
C [7 metric tonsO. sub. 2].
However, compared with the electric heating equipment with 75% efficiency (
Use of natural gas)
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions will reach 360 metric tons per year (
The withan emission coefficient of natural gas is 0. 2 kg of C[O. sub. 2]per kWh). [
Figure 7 Slightly][
Figure 8:
Conclusion a new retail store built in Montreal involves several innovative features to ensure high
Considering the outdoor weather forecast, energy performance and BAS function.
The store uses a GSHP system, combined with a radiant floor for space heating and reasonable cooling (
Free cooling with geothermal)
A mixed ventilation system and a DOAS with exhaust heat recovery, assuming 34. 4% (45. 8 kWh/[m. sup. 2]/year)
Energy consumption of stores throughout the year.
Lighting system use 53.
Total annual energy consumption of 3%.
First heating
Season (January)
The geothermal system consumes 44% of the total store energy consumption;
This percentage fell to 31% in the summer (in July).
Although the specific energy consumption of the store is high with the other three-
Performance of commercial and institutional buildings (133. 1 kWh/[m. sup. 2]per year)
Several improvements have been made to optimize the GSHP system operating parameters and lighting schedule.
ASHRAE reference. 2005.
Award winning for energy saving design.
Ashrainsights month (2):1-2.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Air conditioning engineer LimitedASHRAE. 2001a.
2001 ASHRAE manual--Fundamentals.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Condition Engineer CompanyASHRAE. 2001b.
ASNI/ASHRAE Standard 62-
2001, the indoor air quality is still ventilated.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Air conditioning engineer LimitedASHRAE. 2004.
ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA standard 90. 1-
2004, except low-
High-rise residential buildings.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Air conditioning engineer LimitedASHRAE. 1998.
Operational experience in business
Source heat pump system.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air
Air conditioning engineer LimitedCharneux, R. 2004a.
Control strategy of retail GSHP system.
Construction consultant, partner of Morchella Pageau, Montreal, Canada. Charneux, R. 2004b.
Ashray workshop Mountain Equipment Cooperative, Quebec. Genest, F. , and R. Charneux. 2005.
Create synergy for sustainable design.
Journal ASHRAE 47 (3):16-21. Minea, V. 2005.
Geothermal radiant floor heating and refrigeration in retail stores. Hydro-
Technical Report of QuebecMRNFP. 2003.
Energie au of Quebec.
Minister of ressource naturelles, Faune and Parcs, Quebec. Torcellini, P. A. , R. Judkoff, and D. B. Crawley. 2004. High-
Performing architecture: lessons learned.
Architecture of the future (supplement).
Journal ASHRAE 46 (9):S4-S11.
Discuss senior engineer of Paul Torcellini, Golden, CO. National Renewable Energy Laboratory :(1)
How is the flat panel insulated? (2)
Is there any construction problem with flat panel insulation?
Frederic Genest: floor on the first floor (slab on grade)
Completely insulated below with 100mm (4 in. )
Thick insulation concrete (
Lightweight concrete matrix with insulating aggregate inside)totalingan R-
The value is at least 1. 06 [m. sup. 2]x [degrees]C/W (6. 1 [ft. sup. 2]x[degrees]F x h/Btu).
Insulation concrete is selected according to the construction progress, and the construction progress requires workers to work at the bottom before pouring the floor.
Huang Qiao, a staff scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California: is the heating and cooling load balance on the ground
Source heat pump?
If not, is there a danger that the ground loop will gradually get cold and lower the heating COP over time?
Genes: natural cooling due mainly to cold climate and mid-term occurrence
For most of the summer, the annual heating and cooling load is not balanced.
However, this is taken into account when determining the size of the ground
Heat exchanger.
Also, the site has a fairly good groundwater flow.
So we don\'t expect any performance degradation over time.
Klaus hagard, president of Ridgewood hagid Engineering, New Jersey: this is a very good presentation.
It improves the standard of building energy saving and represents a good effectof-the-
Box energy project
It would be interesting to attribute each mechanical energy saving measured to the precise energy saving.
Genest: Unfortunately, the only source of comparison available is the value obtained when performing an energy simulation of the reference building.
For lighting, the total annual consumption of references is 95 kw h /[m. sup. 2](8. 8 kWh/[ft. sup. 2])
Compared to 71 KW hours /[m. sup. 2](6. 6 kWh/[ft. sup. 2])as measured.
For HVAC systems (
Including heat pump, all pumps, mixed ventilation system and DOAS)
The total annual consumption of reference is 329. 2kWh/[m. sup. 2](30. 6 kWh/[ft. sup. 2])
In contrast, 49. 4 kWh/[m. sup. 2](4. 6kWh/[ft. sup. 2])as measured.
Water to the ground-
The source exchanger, plate area and DOAS were measured, but unfortunately the data obtained was unreliable and could not be published.
Frederick janitette, sports commissioner Dr. ASHRAE Minea Vasily ASHRAE Frederick janitette is an associate of project engineer and associate member Pageau Moran, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Vasile Minea is a scientific researcher in the Power Technology Laboratory (LTE)of Hydro-
Quebec, Savannah, QC
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