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forum: out of the icebox, into the fire - the refrigerator that found its way into a reactor

by:NULITE     2019-08-15
On Christmas Eve, 1928, Albert Einstein and Leo Selander applied for a refrigerator in England.
Their motivation is a short news story in Berlin about a family killed by their leaking new friend at night.
When the refrigerator was still primitive.
Technically, leaks are common and refrigerants like ammonia are toxic.
The story was so shocking that Einstein and serad began designing a new safety design.
This is a strange scene: two great physicists in the world take the time to turn their minds to the kitchen, not the universe;
But they are serious about the project.
Of course, Einstein spent nine years in the patent office.
At the turn of the century, he was once a staff member in Bern. His job was to judge the special ideas of others.
Then he will go home by tram and have his own strange thoughts.
Serad, a Hungarian, has arrived in Berlin where he attended a seminar on quantum mechanics.
Szilard is not in good health.
He was famous in physics at that time, but he had a lot of original ideas and he could knead everyone.
When they get together to think about the problem with the fridge, people don\'t know that most biographers tend to pass it off, but one or the other of them will see the article in the newspaper, maybe I mentioned it to other people who drank coffee.
In those days, a lot of physics is done by coffee.
I don\'t know which of them has the first idea.
Einstein always said that he had few new ideas.
In his words, he is more like a butterfly.
So maybe Szilard came up with the spark to start.
He is famous for being an idealist.
The only way he can control hisimagination traffic is to put all his ideas on postcards and then send them to any hotel where he lives (he lovedhotels).
Then they will arrive fresh and date in order and he can pick out the good from the bad.
There is no doubt that serad is a butterfly.
Their final design is unique.
It consists of traditional refrigerator pipes through which instead of killing volatile liquids such as ammonia compounds, suspended matter of liquid metal or metal particles from the Berlin family, their patents are called \"heavy power \".
Basically, the metal flows smoothly through magnetism.
This is one of the earliest magnetic pumps.
As a kind of relaxation, it took them months to work on this project, which is a game.
Einstein\'s wife, Elsa, thinks they can use it for fortune-telling.
Szilard also seems to believe they are the winners.
The German electric company AEG, attracted by Einstein\'s name, requested permission to build a building, and Szilard was hired as a consultant.
Unfortunately, even when compared to a refrigerator that was away from silence at the time, the prototype proved so noisy that the idea never left the factory.
They did not hesitate to try again, and by 1931, a total of 29 patents were filed, mainly patents related to refrigeration and magnetic absorption.
But by this time, their relationship has failed.
It must be frustrating when their patents are not proven to be of no interest to anyone.
Throughout the 1930 th century and the second world war, a great deal of political energy was exhausted, and Einstein traveled across the Atlantic with many scientists to Princeton, and after a long delay, serad was also exhausted.
When serad did not consider physics, he was considering political issues, and he had been in the UK for some time helping Hungarian refugees find jobs and live on reduced savings until he crossed the Atlantic in 1938.
The center of gravity of physics has also changed, and now it is in the direction of nuclear energy.
In the meantime, Szilard\'s interests have shifted to the issue of atoms, and he has filed with the British Admiral a patent he wants to keep secret: a description of the energy release in the \"Chain Reaction.
In the ugly environment of 19 th century Europe, under his political consciousness, serad realized the potential of his ideas.
Unfortunately, he has no ability to let anyone listen.
So he contacted Einstein.
Good story about how Szilard and Eugene Wigner tracked Einstein to his summer house in Cutchogue, Long Island --known.
Einstein agreed to sign the letter drafted by Szilard, which described the possibility of a new discovery of fission being mistakenly used to make a bomb and sent the theletter to President Roosevelt.
Given the consequences, whether or not this letter fails seems to be a moot question, but when the war is over, Szilard decides that the only thing worth doing is giving up physics, he studied biology with his back to the subject.
Physics failed for him.
At the same time, the refrigerator he and Einstein designed surfaced again, this time in a nuclear reactor.
At the same time as the University of Chicago used nuclear energy peacefully, the weapons lab atLos Alamos was almost developed.
The world\'s first \"pile\" was assembled by EnricoFermi and his team on the Chicago squash court (
Some sources say, under the tennis court)
By December 2, 1942, it worked in its own sweet and original way.
Szilard worked there for a while until he handed himself over to biology.
He didn\'t stay long, but he did make one or two suggestions on cooling the reactor.
Inside the core of the reactor, a large amount of heat is generated, which is of no use unless it can be pumped out and heated with conventional steam
Turbine generator.
Szilard solved the problem-suddenly remembered the noisy refrigerator of AEG.
This is an ideal heat pump.
With improved and more advanced motors, it also works quietly.
Now, in many reactors, Einstein-
As an ancestor, Szilarddesign pushed liquid sodium through the center of the reactor, in part because of the frolicking of two great men, and in part because of the unfortunate death of a family in Berlin\'s apartment because of a leak in the new refrigerator.
However, neither Einstein nor Selander made a penny from it: they thought it was not worth the patent.
Stephen Moss is a science teacher at Oxford University.
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